게시물 1,013건
   
Tcpdump Examples
글쓴이 : 최고관리자 날짜 : 2018-05-31 (목) 11:39 조회 : 8082
글주소 :
                                
https://hackertarget.com/tcpdump-examples/

Tcpdump Examples

tcpdump examples needle in haystackPractical tcpdump examples to lift your network troubleshootingand security testing game. Commands and tips to not only use tcpdump but master ways to know your network.

Knowing tcpdump is an essential skill that will come in handy for any system adminstratornetwork engineer or security professional.

First The Basics

Breaking down the Tcpdump Command Line

The following command uses common parameters often seen when wielding the tcpdump scalpel.

:~$ sudo tcpdump -i eth0 -nn -s0 -v port 80

-i : Select interface that the capture is to take place on, this will often be an ethernet card or wireless adapter but could also be a vlan or something more unusual. Not always required if there is only one network adapter.
-nn : A single (n) will not resolve hostnames. A double (nn) will not resolve hostnames or ports. This is handy for not only viewing the IP / port numbers but also when capturing a large amount of data, as the name resolution will slow down the capture.
-s0 : Snap length, is the size of the packet to capture. -s0 will set the size to unlimited - use this if you want to capture all the traffic. Needed if you want to pull binaries / files from network traffic.
-v : Verbose, using (-v) or (-vv) increases the amount of detail shown in the output, often showing more protocol specific information.
port 80 : this is a common port filter to capture only traffic on port 80, that is of course usually HTTP.

Display ASCII text

Adding -A to the command line will have the output include the ascii strings from the capture. This allows easy reading and the ability to parse the output using grep or other commands. Another option that shows both hexadecimal output and ASCII is the -X option.

:~$ sudo tcpdump -A -s0 port 80

Capture on Protocol

Filter on UDP traffic. Another way to specify this is to use protocol 17 that is udp. These two commands will produce the same result. The equivalent of the tcp filter is protocol 6.

:~$ sudo tcpdump -i eth0 udp
:~$ sudo tcpdump -i eth0 proto 17

Capture Hosts based on IP address

Using the host filter will capture traffic going to (destination) and from (source) the IP address.

:~$ sudo tcpdump -i eth0 host 10.10.1.1

Alternatively capture only packets going one way using src or dst.

:~$ sudo tcpdump -i eth0 dst 10.10.1.20

Write a capture file

Writing a standard pcap file is a common command option. Writing a capture file to disk allows the file to be opened in Wireshark or other packet analysis tools.

:~$ sudo tcpdump -i eth0 -s0 -w test.pcap

Line Buffered Mode

Without the option to force line (-l) buffered (or packet buffered -C) mode you will not always get the expected response when piping the tcpdump output to another command such as grep. By using this option the output is sent immediately to the piped command giving an immediate response when troubleshooting.

:~$ sudo tcpdump -i eth0 -s0 -l port 80 | grep 'Server:'

Combine Filters

Throughout these examples you can use standard logic to combine different filters.

and or &&
or or ||
not or !

Practical Examples

In many of these examples there are a number of ways that the result could be achieved. As seen in some of the examples it is possible to focus the capture right down to individual bits in the packet.

The method you will use will depend on your desired output and how much traffic is on the wire. Capturing on a busy gigabit link may force you to use specific low level packet filters.

When troubleshooting you often simply want to get a result. Filtering on the port and selecting ascii output in combination with grepcut or awk will often get that result. You can always go deeper into the packet if required.

For example when capturing HTTP requests and responses you could filter out all packets except the data by removing SYN /ACK / FIN however if you are using grep the noise will be filtered anyway. Keep it simple.

This can be seen in the following examples, where the aim is to get a result in the simplest (and therefore fastest) manner.

1. Extract HTTP User Agents

Extract HTTP User Agent from HTTP request header.

:~$ sudo tcpdump -nn -A -s1500 -l | grep "User-Agent:"

By using egrep and multiple matches we can get the User Agent and the Host (or any other header) from the request.

:~$ sudo tcpdump -nn -A -s1500 -l | egrep -i 'User-Agent:|Host:'

2. Capture only HTTP GET and POST packets

Going deep on the filter we can specify only packets that match GET.

:~$ sudo tcpdump -s 0 -A -vv 'tcp[((tcp[12:1] & 0xf0) >> 2):4] = 0x47455420'

Alternatively we can select only on POST requests. Note that the POST data may not be included in the packet captured with this filter. It is likely that a POST request will be split across multiple TCP data packets.

:~$ sudo tcpdump -s 0 -A -vv 'tcp[((tcp[12:1] & 0xf0) >> 2):4] = 0x504f5354'

The hexadecimal being matched in these expressions matches the ascii for GET and POST.

As an explanation tcp[((tcp[12:1] & 0xf0) >> 2):4] first determines the location of the bytes we are interested in (after the TCP header) and then selects the 4 bytes we wish to match against.

3. Extract HTTP Request URL's

Simply parse Host and HTTP Request location from traffic. By not targeting port 80 we may find these requests on any port such as HTTP services running on high ports.

:~$ sudo tcpdump -s 0 -v -n -l | egrep -i "POST /|GET /|Host:"

tcpdump: listening on enp7s0, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 262144 bytes
	POST /wp-login.php HTTP/1.1
	Host: dev.example.com
	GET /wp-login.php HTTP/1.1
	Host: dev.example.com
	GET /favicon.ico HTTP/1.1
	Host: dev.example.com
	GET / HTTP/1.1
	Host: dev.example.com

4. Extract HTTP Passwords in POST Requests

Lets get some passwords from the POST data. Will include Host: and request location so we know what the password is used for.

:~$ sudo tcpdump -s 0 -A -n -l | egrep -i "POST /|pwd=|passwd=|password=|Host:"

tcpdump: verbose output suppressed, use -v or -vv for full protocol decode
listening on enp7s0, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 262144 bytes
11:25:54.799014 IP 10.10.1.30.39224 > 10.10.1.125.80: Flags [P.], seq 1458768667:1458770008, ack 2440130792, win 704, options [nop,nop,TS val 461552632 ecr 208900561], length 1341: HTTP: POST /wp-login.php HTTP/1.1
.....s..POST /wp-login.php HTTP/1.1
Host: dev.example.com
.....s..log=admin&pwd=notmypassword&wp-submit=Log+In&redirect_to=http%3A%2F%2Fdev.example.com%2Fwp-admin%2F&testcookie=1

5. Capture Cookies from Server and from Client

MMMmmm Cookies! Capture cookies from the server by searching on Set-Cookie: (from Server) and Cookie: (from Client).

:~$ sudo tcpdump -nn -A -s0 -l | egrep -i 'Set-Cookie|Host:|Cookie:'

tcpdump: verbose output suppressed, use -v or -vv for full protocol decode
listening on wlp58s0, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 262144 bytes
Host: dev.example.com
Cookie: wordpress_86be02xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxc43=admin%7C152xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxfb3e15c744fdd6; _ga=GA1.2.21343434343421934; _gid=GA1.2.927343434349426; wordpress_test_cookie=WP+Cookie+check; wordpress_logged_in_86be654654645645645654645653fc43=admin%7C15275102testtesttesttestab7a61e; wp-settings-time-1=1527337439

6. Capture all ICMP packets

See all ICMP packets on the wire.

:~$ sudo tcpdump -n icmp

tcpdump: verbose output suppressed, use -v or -vv for full protocol decode
listening on enp7s0, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 262144 bytes
11:34:21.590380 IP 10.10.1.217 > 10.10.1.30: ICMP echo request, id 27948, seq 1, length 64
11:34:21.590434 IP 10.10.1.30 > 10.10.1.217: ICMP echo reply, id 27948, seq 1, length 64
11:34:27.680307 IP 10.10.1.159 > 10.10.1.1: ICMP 10.10.1.189 udp port 59619 unreachable, length 115

7. Show ICMP Packets that are not ECHO/REPLY (standard ping)

Filter on the icmp type to select on icmp packets that are not standard ping packets.

:~$ sudo tcpdump 'icmp[icmptype] != icmp-echo and icmp[icmptype] != icmp-echoreply'

tcpdump: verbose output suppressed, use -v or -vv for full protocol decode
listening on enp7s0, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 262144 bytes
11:37:04.041037 IP 10.10.1.189 > 10.10.1.20: ICMP 10.10.1.189 udp port 36078 unreachable, length 156

8. Capture SMTP / POP3 Email

It is possible to extract email body and other data, in this example we are only parsing the email recipients.

:~$ sudo tcpdump -nn -l port 25 | grep -i 'MAIL FROM\|RCPT TO'

9. Troubleshooting NTP Query and Response

In this example we see the NTP query and response.

:~$ sudo tcpdump dst port 123

tcpdump: verbose output suppressed, use -v or -vv for full protocol decode
listening on eth0, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 65535 bytes
21:02:19.112502 IP test33.ntp > 199.30.140.74.ntp: NTPv4, Client, length 48
21:02:19.113888 IP 216.239.35.0.ntp > test33.ntp: NTPv4, Server, length 48
21:02:20.150347 IP test33.ntp > 216.239.35.0.ntp: NTPv4, Client, length 48
21:02:20.150991 IP 216.239.35.0.ntp > test33.ntp: NTPv4, Server, length 48

10. Capture SNMP Query and Response

Using onesixtyone the fast SNMP protocol scanner we test an SNMP service on our local network and capture the GetRequest and GetResponse. For anyone who has had the (dis)pleasure of troubleshooting SNMP, this is a great way to see exactly what is happening on the wire. You can see the OID clearly in the traffic, very helpful when wrestling with MIBS.

:~$ onesixtyone 10.10.1.10 public

Scanning 1 hosts, 1 communities
10.10.1.10 [public] Linux test33 4.15.0-20-generic #21-Ubuntu SMP Tue Apr 24 06:16:15 UTC 2018 x86_64
:~$ sudo tcpdump -n -s0  port 161 and udp
tcpdump: verbose output suppressed, use -v or -vv for full protocol decode
listening on wlp58s0, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 262144 bytes
23:39:13.725522 IP 10.10.1.159.36826 > 10.10.1.20.161:  GetRequest(28)  .1.3.6.1.2.1.1.1.0
23:39:13.728789 IP 10.10.1.20.161 > 10.10.1.159.36826:  GetResponse(109)  .1.3.6.1.2.1.1.1.0="Linux testmachine 4.15.0-20-generic #21-Ubuntu SMP Tue Apr 24 06:16:15 UTC 2018 x86_64"

11. Capture FTP Credentials and Commands

Capturing FTP commands and login details is straight forward. After the authentication is established an FTP session can be active or passive this will determine whether the data part of the session is conducted over TCP port 20 or another ephemeral port. With the following command you will USER and PASS in the output (which could be fed to grep) as well as the FTP commands such as LIST, CWD and PASSIVE.

:~$ sudo tcpdump -nn -v port ftp or ftp-data

12. Rotate Capture Files

When capturing large amounts of traffic or over a long period of time it can be helpful to automatically create new files of a fixed size. This is done using the parameters -W-G and -C.

In this command the file capture-(hour).pcap will be created every (-G) 3600 seconds (1 hour). The files will be overwritten the following day. So you should end up with capture-{1-24}.pcap, if the hour was 15 the new file is (/tmp/capture-15.pcap).

:~$ tcpdump  -w /tmp/capture-%H.pcap -G 3600 -C 200

13. Capture IPv6 Traffic

Capture IPv6 traffic using the ip6 filter. In these examples we have specified the TCP and UDP protocols using proto 6 and proto 17.

tcpdump -nn ip6 proto 6

IPv6 with UDP and reading from a previously saved capture file.

tcpdump -nr ipv6-test.pcap ip6 proto 17

14. Detect Port Scan in Network Traffic

In the following example you can see the traffic coming from a single source to a single destination. The Flags [S] and [R] can be seen and matched against a seemingly random series of destination ports. These ports are seen in the RESET that is sent when the SYN finds a closed port on the destination system. This is standard behaviour for a port scan by a tool such as Nmap.

We have another tutorial on Nmap that details captured port scans (open / closed / filtered) in a number of Wireshark captures.

:~$ tcpdump -nn

21:46:19.693601 IP 10.10.1.10.60460 > 10.10.1.199.5432: Flags [S], seq 116466344, win 29200, options [mss 1460,sackOK,TS val 3547090332 ecr 0,nop,wscale 7], length 0
21:46:19.693626 IP 10.10.1.10.35470 > 10.10.1.199.513: Flags [S], seq 3400074709, win 29200, options [mss 1460,sackOK,TS val 3547090332 ecr 0,nop,wscale 7], length 0
21:46:19.693762 IP 10.10.1.10.44244 > 10.10.1.199.389: Flags [S], seq 2214070267, win 29200, options [mss 1460,sackOK,TS val 3547090333 ecr 0,nop,wscale 7], length 0
21:46:19.693772 IP 10.10.1.199.389 > 10.10.1.10.44244: Flags [R.], seq 0, ack 2214070268, win 0, length 0
21:46:19.693783 IP 10.10.1.10.35172 > 10.10.1.199.1433: Flags [S], seq 2358257571, win 29200, options [mss 1460,sackOK,TS val 3547090333 ecr 0,nop,wscale 7], length 0
21:46:19.693826 IP 10.10.1.10.33022 > 10.10.1.199.49153: Flags [S], seq 2406028551, win 29200, options [mss 1460,sackOK,TS val 3547090333 ecr 0,nop,wscale 7], length 0
21:46:19.695567 IP 10.10.1.10.55130 > 10.10.1.199.49154: Flags [S], seq 3230403372, win 29200, options [mss 1460,sackOK,TS val 3547090334 ecr 0,nop,wscale 7], length 0
21:46:19.695590 IP 10.10.1.199.49154 > 10.10.1.10.55130: Flags [R.], seq 0, ack 3230403373, win 0, length 0
21:46:19.695608 IP 10.10.1.10.33460 > 10.10.1.199.49152: Flags [S], seq 3289070068, win 29200, options [mss 1460,sackOK,TS val 3547090335 ecr 0,nop,wscale 7], length 0
21:46:19.695622 IP 10.10.1.199.49152 > 10.10.1.10.33460: Flags [R.], seq 0, ack 3289070069, win 0, length 0
21:46:19.695637 IP 10.10.1.10.34940 > 10.10.1.199.1029: Flags [S], seq 140319147, win 29200, options [mss 1460,sackOK,TS val 3547090335 ecr 0,nop,wscale 7], length 0
21:46:19.695650 IP 10.10.1.199.1029 > 10.10.1.10.34940: Flags [R.], seq 0, ack 140319148, win 0, length 0
21:46:19.695664 IP 10.10.1.10.45648 > 10.10.1.199.5060: Flags [S], seq 2203629201, win 29200, options [mss 1460,sackOK,TS val 3547090335 ecr 0,nop,wscale 7], length 0
21:46:19.695775 IP 10.10.1.10.49028 > 10.10.1.199.2000: Flags [S], seq 635990431, win 29200, options [mss 1460,sackOK,TS val 3547090335 ecr 0,nop,wscale 7], length 0
21:46:19.695790 IP 10.10.1.199.2000 > 10.10.1.10.49028: Flags [R.], seq 0, ack 635990432, win 0, length 0

15. Example Filter Showing Nmap NSE script Testing

In this example the Nmap NSE script http-enum.nse is shown testing for valid urls against an open HTTP service.

On the Nmap machine:

:~$ nmap -p 80 --script=http-enum.nse targetip

On the target machine:

:~$ tcpdump -nn port 80 | grep "GET /"

GET /w3perl/ HTTP/1.1
GET /w-agora/ HTTP/1.1
GET /way-board/ HTTP/1.1
GET /web800fo/ HTTP/1.1
GET /webaccess/ HTTP/1.1
GET /webadmin/ HTTP/1.1
GET /webAdmin/ HTTP/1.1

16. Capture Start and End Packets of every non-local host

This example


이름 패스워드
비밀글 (체크하면 글쓴이만 내용을 확인할 수 있습니다.)
왼쪽의 글자를 입력하세요.
   

 



 
사이트명 : 모지리네 | 대표 : 이경현 | 개인커뮤니티 : 랭키닷컴 운영체제(OS) | 경기도 성남시 분당구 | 전자우편 : mojily골뱅이chonnom.com Copyright ⓒ www.chonnom.com www.kyunghyun.net www.mojily.net. All rights reserved.